A landscape type defined by gentle sinuous forms, soft contours and harmonious, balanced compositions. Usually, this aesthetic category governs depictions of the "civilized" landscape, as seen in Cole's View of Florence from San Minato (1837).
Also known as "The Lunch Club." Founded in 1820 by the novelist James Fenimore Cooper, the Bread and Cheese Club was a lunchtime gathering of writers, artists, and other New York intellectuals who met to discuss art and culture. Thomas Cole, William Cullen Bryant, and Asher B. Durand were all regular attendees of the club's meetings.